History of feminism Feminism in the United States, Canada and a number of countries in western Europe has been divided into three waves by feminist scholars: De Beauvior's writing explained why it was difficult for talented women to become successful.
Overview Feminism may broadly be defined as a movement seeking the reorganization of the world upon the basis of sex equality, rejecting all forms of differentiation among or discrimination against individuals upon grounds of sex.
It urges a worldview that rejects male-created ideologies. At another level, it is also a mode of analysis and politics, committed to freeing all women of gender-based oppressions. Literally, then, anyone who supports such an ideology can be a feminist, regardless of gender. Since the s, following women's campaigns and struggles as well as theoretical and empirical research highlighting gender discrimination pervasive in law, policy, and opportunities to work, organizations and governments around the world have begun to incorporate gender considerations into policies and programs.
International agencies such as the United Nations support many women's projects globally, including World Conferences on Women Mexico, ; Copenhagen; Nairobi; Beijing, bringing together thousands of women to facilitate exchange and global networks.
Any discussion of feminism must analyze not only its genesis, practices, and forms of resistance organized women's movements but also its writing and theorizing, which has been an important form of self-expression and indeed a conscious exercise in building a body of feminist knowledge.
Since the s Western feminist thought has generated newer, more nuanced understandings of such concepts as "sex," "gender," and "woman. Feminism both as ideology and struggle can hardly be discussed as a seamless narrative, for in the twenty-first century it is practiced within different social and political configurations, and women's movements flourish in diverse locations.
However, it is evident that despite broad commonalities, feminist struggles are influenced by local, cultural, national, and indeed global factors that shape local polities and economies.
An overview of salient developments reveals fascinating interrogations of Western feminism by non-Western women as well as deep divisions among Western feminists based on race, class, and sexual orientation. In fact, in the early s many believe that the term is valid only in its plural form, feminisms, to reflect its many transnational manifestations across race, class, and religion.
Anglo-American Feminism Developments in Anglo-American feminism are often characterized in terms of waves, with the "first wave" in the United States beginning with initiatives as early as the organization of the National Woman Suffrage Association in by Susan B.
Anthony and other such efforts in the early decades of the twentieth century when women's liberation was seen in terms of "human" liberation. These struggles led to the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment in the U.
Constitution, enfranchising American women in Following this there was a comparative lull in feminist activity. Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique is widely cited as a seminal text that precipitated public dialogue in America about feminism by pointing to an inchoate sense of "something wrong lodged in the minds of countless American housewives.
Anglo-American feminists of this period were also drawn to developments in French feminism, which in turn drew inspiration from early seminal texts such as Simone de Beauvoir 's The Second Sex The "second wave" was marked by an explosion of complicated theories borrowing from philosophy, psychoanalysis, and politics that aimed 1 to challenge patriarchal values and constructs that oppressed women and to critique such portrayals in contemporary literature and popular culture, and 2 to represent the figure of the woman as an autonomous subject, focusing on the gendered body of woman to better understand such issues as reproductive rights, sexual harassment, and violence.
Consciousness-raising was seen as a key tool for furthering feminism, and oft-repeated slogans of this phase were "sisterhood is powerful" and "the personal is political. Black feminist politics, rooted in the black liberation and civil rights movements s—shad convinced many African-American women of the need for a politics that was both antiracist and antisexist.
The Combahee River Collective a Boston-based black feminist group founded in aimed at "struggling against racial, sexual, heterosexual, and class oppression.
Sisterhood, hooks asserted, required a commitment on the part of white women to examine their own complicity in white privilege, because black women's oppression was located at the intersections of race, class, and gender.
Reacting to a narrowly defined feminism, the African-American writer Alice Walker coined the term womanist to describe a woman "committed to survival and wholeness of an entire people, male and female.
Trajectories within Feminism Interrogations within feminism have spawned various strands in feminist thought that have acquired labels.
Although categorizations hardly do justice to the variety of complex positions, some broad explanations are possible. Liberal feminists see the oppression of women in terms of inequality between the sexes and are concerned with equal access to opportunities for women.
However, they believe that private and public domains are governed by different rules, attitudes, and behavior. Thus, in matters of family for instance, love, caring, and sensitivity come first. Radical feminists, on the other hand, link women's oppression to patriarchy and see its manifestations in personal relationships and sexuality.
Early articulations of this position led to the celebration of women's lives and the writing of women's history. Radical feminists have founded women's newsletters, bookstores, and presses. Many radical feminists celebrate lesbianism, although all radical feminists are not lesbians.
Lesbian feminists in the United States in the s began by theorizing about how society's treatment of lesbianism reflects not only its attitudes toward homosexuality but also its attitudes toward sexuality, femininity, male power, and gender politics in general.
They argued that lesbianism in turn teaches about gender politics and forces a rethinking of constructions of sexuality and female desire. Thus social lesbianism emerged as an ideology and practice that sought to transform dominant ideas of sexual roles.
Disrupting hegemonic sexual roles and division of labor, lesbianism seriously calls into question traditional attitudes toward women's roles as being primarily reproductive. Ecofeminism links the patriarchal domination of woman with the exploitation of nature—both as forms of oppressing the "other.
They campaign against racism and economic exploitation as well as the exploitation of nature.Feminism is a movement that seek to achieve equality and social rights for women in all key areas which includes education, personal, economic, employment, and cultural sphere of human endeavours.
Unlike the former movements, the term ‘feminist’ becomes less critically received by the female population due to the varying feminist outlooks.
There are the ego-cultural feminists, the radicals, the liberal/reforms, the electoral, academic, ecofeminists the list goes on.
versions of Western feminist theory, exporting to the rest of the world a set of visions and strategies that were context specific for Western women’s movements.
The paper. Feminism research papers overview women's rights and the feminist movement. The word “feminism” has the power to unite women in common causes, strike fear in men and some women who don’t understand it’s meaning, and rally those together who blame the feminist movement .
Feminist theory is an outgrowth of the general movement to empower women worldwide. Feminism can be defined as a recognition and critique of male supremacy combined with effort to change it.
Simply saying: Feminist fights for the equality of women and argue that women should share equally in society’s opportunities and scare resources.
Nov 20, · Women’s movement, diverse social movement, largely based in the United States, seeking equal rights and opportunities for women in their economic activities, their personal lives, and politics.
It is recognized as the “second wave” of the larger feminist movement.