This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in other forums, provided the original authors and source are credited and subject to any copyright notices concerning any third-party graphics etc. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract This paper reviews methods for analyzing plant performance and its genetic variability under a range of environmental conditions. Biomass accumulation is linked every day to available light in the photosynthetically active radiation PAR domain, multiplied by the proportion of light intercepted by plants and by the radiation use efficiency.
Received May 18; Accepted Jun 1. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Licensewhich permits non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in other forums, provided the original authors and source are credited.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract In this technology report, three test methods were developed to characterize the degradation of plastic in marine environment.
The aim was to outline a test methodology to measure the physical and biological degradation in different habitats where plastic waste can deposit when littered in the sea.
Previously, research has focused mainly on the conditions encountered by plastic items when floating in the sea water pelagic domain. However, this is just one of the possible habitats that plastic waste can be exposed to. Waves and tides tend to wash up plastic waste on the shoreline, which is also a relevant habitat to be studied.
Therefore, the degradation of plastic items buried under sand kept wet with sea water has been followed by verifying the disintegration visual disappearing as a simulation of the tidal zone.
Most biodegradable plastics have higher densities than water and also as a consequence of fouling, they tend to sink and lay on the sea floor.
Therefore, the fate of plastic items lying on the sediment has been followed by monitoring the oxygen consumption biodegradation. Also the effect of a prolonged exposure to the sea water, to simulate the pelagic domain, has been tested by measuring the decay of mechanical properties.
This study is not conclusive as the methodological approach must be completed by also determining degradation occurring in the supralittoral zone, on the deep sea floor, and in the anoxic sediment.
They are extensively commercialized at worldwide level because they are inexpensive, easy to manufacture, lightweight, and resistant to corrosion and microorganisms.
These features make plastics a very popular material and used in massive quantities in several applications.
On the other hand, the same features have created the conditions for some environmental problems affecting the marine pelagic and benthic habitats Moore et al. The major source is uncontrolled disposal of waste.
Currents move plastic waste Yamashita and Tanimura, to form aggregations in areas of low water movements. Large aggregations of floating plastic debris covering an area as large as central Europe were reported first in the North Pacific Ocean Moore et al.
High densities of plastic debris were found also in enclosed and semi-enclosed seas such as Caribbean, in the open ocean coast-line of Northern America, Brazil or Hawaii, and in the Mediterranean Sea Colton et al.
New plastics that are subject to biodegradation and thus applied in specific applications where organic recycling composting and anaerobic digestion is the preferable end-of-life have been developed in the last two decades Tokiwa et al. In comparison with other environments, the behavior of these biodegradable plastics in the marine environment has been less studied because the expected fate of bioplastics is to be treated in solid waste treatment facilities or in soil for agricultural applications.
However, recently there has been great interest regarding the characterization of marine biodegradation of bioplastics products. Plastic articles which are used in the sea, such as fishing gear, can get lost or left willingly in the marine environment contributing to the marine pollution. Such fishing products could therefore be made with biodegradable plastics, once biodegradability in the sea is well characterized.
Furthermore, it is of interest to know the marine biodegradability of biodegradable and compostable plastics, in case of uncontrolled release.
Plastic products are directly littered or arrive with fresh waters in the pelagic zone a. From there, and depending on tides and currents, may reach either the supralittoral dor remain in the tidal zone bcalled eulitoral, or they sink to the sublittoral, where light can still be detected cor eventually sink to the deep sea e.
Once they reach the seafloor the products either remain on the surface or get buried within the sediments f.Jun 21, · Test method to measure the degradation of plastic samples on the bottom of the deep sea: the plastics products littered by ships when in blue water could reach the bottom of the sea in the non-photic zone.
Pressure and conditions are extreme. Detailed Description of the Experiment. Introduction (written for students) Materials and Methods one might expect plant leaves exposed to drought conditions to have fewer stomata in sunlit environments.
stomata density may increase or decrease in response to environmental variation in sunlight and water availability. Note that since. Nov 18, · For example, in an experiment with plants grown in sandy soil with an available water capacity of l l −1 at a density of 10 plants per m 2 the minimum root zone volume must be greater than 6 l in order to avoid plant water deficit at one water supply rate per day.
on the anchor phenomenon that animals and plants interact with their environment and with each other. The driving question to environmental factors such as water and light, and design an isopod environment. Students environmental conditions.
Sep 05, · The Advanced Plant Experiment - Canadian Space Agency 2 (APEX-CSA2) investigation examines white spruce, picea glauca, to understand the influence of gravity on plant physiology, growth, and on the genetics of wood formation.
The main job of an environmental scientist is to identify and address pollution and environmental problems. They monitor the air, water, and soil to help make sure it is all safe and clean.
What are the three pressures that lead to biodiversity according to E.O. Wilson's theory of island biogeography?